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1 2 2 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

RECORD OF AMERICAN FOLK-LORE. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Algonkian. Delaware. Mr. A. T. Cringan's paper on "Iro- 
quois Folk-Songs," published in the Ontario " Archaeological Re- 
port " (Toronto, 1903) for 1902, contains the musical notation of three 
Delaware witch songs (p. 142) and two Delaware harvest songs 
(p. 150) with brief comments and explanatory notes. — Cheyenne. 
In the "Southern Workman" (vol. xxxii. pp. 173, 174) for March, 
1903, Mr. Charles Johnston writes briefly of " The Sun-Dance Tradi- 
tion of the Southern Cheyennes." The Cheyenne "prophet" com- 
memorated by the " Sun-Dance " is Motse Iyoeff, who gave this 
people their social organization, and was a great religious teacher, 
but the traditional ceremony " is not strictly a dance, nor is it spe- 
cially connected with the sun." 

Athapascan. Navaho. Dr. Washington Matthews's " The Night 
Chant, a Navaho Ceremony " (Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. 
vi. May, 1902, pp. xvi. 332. Public, of Hyde Southwestern Exped.), 
which is reviewed at length elsewhere in this Journal (vol. xv. pp. 
61-64), would of itself alone make the contributions of American 
ethnologists to the study of primitive religions illustrious in the 
annals of science. It is the magnum opus of an investigator, who, 
while giving so much, modestly disclaims having discovered all that 
was to be learned about this great ceremony in which the social and 
the psychic life of a most interesting aboriginal people is involved. 
The Messrs. Hyde deserve the gratitude of the scientific world for 
enabling the American Museum to present in sumptuous form this 
monument of patient unprejudiced research. 

California. In the " American Anthropologist " (n. s. vol. v. 
pp. 1-26) for January-March, 1903, Dr. R. B. Dixon and Dr. A. L. 
Kroeber have an interesting and valuable article on " The Native 
Languages of California," which should be read by the folk-lorist. 
Lexical similarities in the words for "dog," "food," "eat," are noted. 
In some languages the word for " salmon " is related to the root for 
" eat " (food). Differences of culture correspond, to some extent, 
with the linguistic differences indicated. 

Eskimo. Under the title " Eskimomusik," the ethnological jour- 
nal "Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. pp. 138, 139) reprints, with comments, 
text and music of several Eskimo songs from Dr. Robert Stein's 
"The White World" (N. Y., 1902), which contains a section on 
Eskimo music. — A previous article in the same periodical (vol. lxxxii. 
1902, pp. 263-270), entitled "Die Eskimos des Baffinlandes und der 
Hudsonbai." resume's, with 25 figures, the data in Dr. Franz Boas's 



Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 123 

" The Central Eskimo " (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. xv. 
1901). 

Iroquoian. To the " Archaeological Report " (Toronto, 1903) of 
Ontario for 1902, Rev. A. E. Jones contributes a paper on the " Iden- 
tification of St. Ignace II. and of Ekarenniondi " (pp. 92-136), which 
contains a number of interpretations of place-names — Ekarenniondi, 
"The Standing Rock;" Etharita, "The ever principal drying or 
maturing place ; " Scanonaenrat, " The one white sandy river bed ; " 
Gahoendoe (or Ahoendoe), " At the river-island ; " Ondiatana, " The 
island of the end of one point ; " Khinonascarant, " Beyond the trol- 
ling grounds at the opening of the strait ; " Arontaen, " Here there 
is a strait." The author believes that he has determined the position 
of the famous " Standing Rock " of the Petuns or Tobacco Nation. 
— In the same " Report " is published Mr. A. T. Cringan's study of 
"Iroquois Folk-Songs" (pp. 137-152). The musical notation, with 
comments and explanations, of 34 songs, is given, — of these, how- 
ever, 7 are Tutelo and 5 Delaware, consequently not Iroquoian, but 
belonging to these Indians long associated with the Iroquois. Of 
the Iroquois songs there are " bean songs " (3) used in connection 
with the bean or peach game ; women's songs (4), naked dance songs 
(3), medicine songs (3), bear dance song, snake song, green corn 
dance song, ahdonwah (song of joy), naming the boy, war-dance 
songs (2), buffalo-dance song and scalping song. The author con- 
cludes that " Iroquois song is based on something even simpler than 
the pentatonic scale." The rhythmical structure of the Iroquois 
songs " is strongly characteristic of the people themselves," and the 
" melodies " abound in subtle rhythmic combinations which would, 
in some instances, afford a severe test of the technical training of an 
average body of modern choristers." We learn, also, that "the mod- 
ern hymn tune, although set to verses in the native language, has a 
decidedly insipid effect when sung by an Indian in comparison with 
his own vigorous native melodies." 

Piman. In his paper on " Pima Annals " in the " American An- 
thropologist " (n. s. vol. v. pp. 76-80) for January-March, 1903, Dr. 
Frank Russell describes the "annals" kept by means of notched 
sticks discovered by him among the Pimas of southern Arizona. 
On these unornamented sticks transverse notches mark the years, 
while the events are marked by smaller notches or rude symbols. 
The "annals" for 1833-34, 1836-37, 1857-58, 1881-82 are recorded 
in this article, and a table of the events noted is given. In only one 
instance has a symbol come to have a conventional meaning. The 
oldest sticks date from 1833 — the meteoric shower of November 13. 
Dr. Russell has added the Pima to the small list of the Indian 
tribes known to have kept calendars or mnemonic records of this or 
related kinds. 



1 24 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Siouan. Tutelo. Mr. Cringan's paper on "Iroquois Folk-Songs," 
cited above, contains the musical notation with brief explanatory 
comments of three adoption songs, three burial songs, and a morn- 
ing song of the Tutelos, a Siouan people, whose few remaining sur- 
vivors are still associated with the Iroquois. — Sioux. To the 
" Southern Workman " (vol. xxxii. pp. 79-84) for February, 1903, F. 
D. Gleason contributes a brief account of " Ration Day among the 
Sioux." The social functions of the day are touched upon. — In 
"Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 1-7) F. Weygold writes of "Das 
indianische Lederzelt im Kbniglichen Museum fur Volkerkunde zu 
Berlin." A brief account, with two illustrations and a colored plate, 
is given of a leather "medicine tent," which, since 1846, has been 
in the possession of the Royal Ethnological Museum in Berlin. On 
the tent are painted some 100 figures of various sorts, the central 
one being the great sacred pipe. Others are snakes, buffaloes, 
horses, human beings, birds, etc. 

Uto-Aztecan. Aztec. In the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Ge- 
sellschaft fur Anthropologic" (1902, pp. 445-467) K. T Preuss dis- 
cusses in detail (with 14 figures in the text) " Das Reliefbild einer 
mexikanischen Todes-Gottheit im Konigl. Museum fur Volkerkunde 
zu Berlin." The object in question belongs to the old Uhde collec- 
tion (chiefly from the Mexican plateau), and does not appear to have 
been noticed hitherto by investigators. The author treats also the 
general subject of Aztec death-deities. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Weapons. Dr. K. Sapper's article on " Mittelamerikanische Waf- 
fen im modernen Gebrauche," in " Globus " (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 
53-63), treats of the bows and arrows, spears, etc., still in use among 
many Indian tribes of Central America, — Lenca, Paya, Bribri, 
Jicaque, Sumo, Lacandons, Gautuso, Mosquito, — with comparisons 
with the corresponding weapons of ancient and modern Mexico 
(Aztec, Seri, Yaqui, etc.). The paper is accompanied by these 
plates. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Araucanian. Gerard de Rialle, in his paper "De l'age de la 
pierre au Chili," in the " Bulletins de la Societe dAnthropologie de 
Paris " (V e S., vol. iii. 1902, pp. 644-648), treats of piedras horada- 
das or pierced stones, called in Araucanian catancura, found in vari- 
ous parts of Chili, and the various theories as to their use. The con- 
clusion reached is that they were weights for the sticks with which 
the natives dug potatoes, etc., an opinion first expressed by Darwin, 
when he visited this part of the world during the voyage of the 
Beagle. 



Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 125 

GuaikurtJ. In the " Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien" (vol. xxxiii. 1903, 1-128.) Theodor Koch pub- 
lishes a valuable study chiefly linguistic, of " Die Guaikuru-Gruppe," 
which is accompanied by a reproduction of Father Lozano's map of 
1733 and a map showing the present distribution of the Guaikuru 
stock. Pages 2, 3 are occupied by a bibliography, pages 3-40, by 
ethnographic notes on the Guaikuru, Mbaya, Cadiveo, Kinikinao, 
Toba, Pilaga, Aguilot, Mokovi, Abipones, Payagua, Lengua, Guatchi, 
etc., and discussions of the signification of these and other ethnic 
names. The remainder of the paper is taken up with vocabularies, 
grammatical and phonetic discussions, etc., which add much to our 
knowledge of these languages. The vocabularies given are : Ca- 
diveo, Guaikuru, Toba. The notes on some of the names of ani- 
mals, etc., are very interesting. The discussion of the numerals 
occupies pages 1 12-125. — Payagua. In "Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. 
1903, pp. 1 17-124) Dr. Theodor Koch writes at length of "Der 
Paradiesgarten als Schnitzmotiv der Payagua-Indianer," discussing 
in some detail the eight specimens (chiefly " medicine pipes " now 
in European museums. The length and other characteristics of 
most of these lead the author to conclude that these tube-like pipes 
have been developed from the cigar. The " Garden of Eden " motif t 
which forms the ornament upon them, has, he thinks, been copied 
from real pictures in the houses or churches of the missionaries. 
This paper is a valuable addition to the literature of metamerindian 
art. 

Omaguaca. In the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft 
fiir Anthropologic " (1902, pp. 336-341), E. v. Nordenskiold writes 
on " Pracolumbische Salzgewinnung in Puna de Jujuy." The ex- 
ploitation of salt is still carried on by the Indians of this region. At 
Huancar large numbers of stone axes have been found, which, from 
their form, weight, and mode of occurrence, the author considers to 
have been employed by the pre-Columbian inhabitants to break up 
the salt-blocks of the Salina grande, etc. 

Pano. The article of A. Reich and F. Stegelmann, "Bei den 
Indianer des Urubamba und des Envira," in " Globus " (vol. lxxxiii. 
1903, pp. 133-137), which has a brief introduction by Karl von den 
Steinen, treats of the Kampa and Kunibo Indians of the Urubambai 
and the Tuare, Kashinaua, Jaminaua, etc., of the Envira. Dress 
and ornament, houses, food, ceremonies, music, fire-making, weapons, 
etc., are briefly noted. On page 135 are short vocabularies of Kampa, 
Piro, and Kunibo; on page 137 longer vocabularies of Kashinaua 
and Jaminaua. Exposure of the dead to be eaten by wild animals 
and vultures is practised by the Kampa. Head-deformation is 
known among the Kunibo. The circumcision of girls is attended 



126 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

with ceremonials. A sort of mouth-bow musical instrument was 
made by a Kunibo youth. The Tauare tattoo themselves about the 
corners of the mouth. They have large shields covered with tapir 
skin. The Jaminaua cremate their dead. The author notes the in- 
creasing bitterness of feeling between the Indians and the whites on 
the upper Envira, etc. — The article of Professor W. Sievers on 
" Das Gebiet zwischen dem Ucayali und dem Pachitea-Pichis (Ost- 
Peru) " in the same periodical (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, 73-76) contains a 
few notes on the Kashibo, Konibo, Chipivo, and Kampa Indians. 

Patagonian. Dr. R. Lehmann-Nitsche's paper, " Weitere An- 
gaben liber die altpatagonischen Schadel aus dem Museum zu La 
Plata" (Verh. d. Berl. Ges. f. Anthr. 1902, pp. 243-350), contains 
some notes (pages 345, 346) on the burial customs of the Moluche, 
Puelche, and Tehuelche Indians, and a discussion (pages 347, 348) 
of the etymology of Tehuelche, the interpretation of which is still 
very doubtful. 

Peru. To the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fur An- 
thropologic" (1902, 341-343) Dr. Lehmann-Nitsche contributes a 
brief paper, " Noch einiges zu den verstiimmelten peruanischen 
Thonfiguren und ein Amputationsstumpf an einem Gefasse aus Alt- 
Peru." He concludes that the pre-Columbian clay-figure in question 
represents an amputation of the right leg, — the subject is a beggar. 
The vase belongs to the Meron collection. 

Tupi. Apiakd. Dr. Koch's paper on " Die Apiaka-Indianer " of 
the Rio Tapajos (Matto Grosso), in the "Verhandlungen der Berliner 
Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic " (1902, pp. 350-379) consists of a 
brief historical and ethnographic description (pages 350-360) and 
vocabularies (pages 360-379). The modern Apiaka is " a remark- 
able mixture of culture and primitivity." The men wear civilized 
clothes, but the women at home go naked. They are secretly poly- 
gamous, but credited with morality, and a spirit of labor, initiative, 
and progress. 

GENERAL. 

Games. In the " American Anthropologist " (n. s. vol. v. pp. 58- 
64) for January-March, 1903, Mr. Stewart Culin has an article on 
"American Indian Games (1902)," in which he summarizes the 
results of his investigations since his discussion of this subject in 
the "Journal of American Folk-Lore" (vol. xi. pp. 245-252), and 
proposes the following classification : 1. Games of chance (a throw- 
ing-games, b guessing games. 2. Games of dexterity (a archery and 
modifications, b moving-target shooting, c sliding-stick on ground or 
ice, d ball in several highly specialized forms, e racing games more 
or less combined with ball). These constitute, par excellence, the 
games of Indian men and women, and games of all these classes are 



Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 127 

found among the Indian tribes of North America. The variations 
in general do not follow linguistic differences, and " precisely the 
same games are played by tribes belonging to unrelated linguistic 
stocks." The Aztec games "appear to be invariably higher develop- 
ments of the games of the wilder tribes." Mr. Culin thinks that a 
central point from which progressive changes radiating north, north- 
east, east, and south probably existed in the southwestern United 
States. The games of the Eskimo "are all extensions of the same 
games we find among the Indians, but show always greater simpli- 
city, lack of tradition, and a degradation of form which would pre- 
clude their being regarded as the source of the Indian games." 
These games appear to be "the direct and natural outgrowth of 
aboriginal institutions in America," and moreover, " there is no evi- 
dence that any of the games above described were imported into 
America at any time, either before or after the conquest." The 
ceremonial aspects of some games are considered. The ball-games 
seem to have been least fruitful for comparative study. 

A. F. C. and I. C. C.